See us if you have any of these insomnia symptoms:

  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Difficulty staying asleep and inability to fall back into sleep
  • Waking up too early in the morning
  • Unrefreshing sleep (“non-restorative” sleep)
  • Fatigue or low energy during the day
  • Cognitive impairments including difficulty driving
  • Mood disturbances including irritability
  • Impulsiveness, aggression and other behavioral problems
  • Difficulty at work or school
  • Difficulty in personal relationships (family, friends, caregivers, etc.)

Insomnia is a common problem for 1 out of every 3 adults in the U.S., resulting in decreased wakefulness, concentration, and performance during the day. There are two types of insomnia:

Chronic Insomnia – insomnia that occurs three nights a week over a period of three months or more

Comorbid Insomnia – insomnia linked to a medical or psychiatric issue.

Medical causes of insomnia

  • nighttime routines that don’t cue your body for sleep
  • sleep schedule out of sync with your biological clock
  • inability of the brain to stop being awake or asleep
  • nasal/sinus allergies
  • Acid reflux and other gastrointestinal problems
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Parkinson’s Disease and other neurological disorders
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Chronic pain
  • Low back pain
  • Medications for a cold or nasal allergies, high blood pressure, thyroid disease, heart disease, birth control, asthma, and depression
  • Restless Leg Syndrome
  • Sleep Apnea

Lifestyle causes of insomnia

  • Work shift schedules
  • Work stress/anxiety and hearing bad news
  • Naps (no matter how short)
  • “Sleeping in”
  • Anxiety
  • Alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine use
  • Heavy meals too close to bedtime


How your sleep specialist treats your insomnia has a lot to do with its cause. Pulmonary Associates of Richmond has the staff and the experience to diagnose and treat both medical and cognitive/behavioral-based insomnia. While many of these treatments can be self-taught, others require the help of a therapist or sleep specialist.

In addition to doctors specializing in sleep disorders, Pulmonary Associates of Richmond also has a clinical psychologist on staff who treats patients suffering from behavioral-based insomnia.

Cognitive & Behavioral Treatments

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Relaxation Training
  • Breathing Exercises
  • Mindfulness/Meditation
  • Stimulus Control

Medical Treatments

Our sleep specialists are highly trained and use the latest and most effective treatments tailored to the cause of your insomnia, including prescription and non-prescription medications

As sleep specialists, the doctors and psychologists at PAR are uniquely qualified to diagnose and treat insomnia and other sleep disorders.